10 Wild water buffalo
scientific name – Bubalus arnee
height – nearly 3 meters (10 feet) long and 2 meters tall
Weight – up to 1200 kg
speed – 30 mph
lifespan – 25 years.
gestation period – 9 to 11 months before giving birth
sexual maturity – Age at sexual maturity is 18 months for males, and three years for females
population – The global population has been estimated at 3,400 individuals, of which 3,100 (91%) live in India, mostly in Assam.
ancestors- ancestor of the domestic water buffalo.
diet – Buffalo eat only vegetation. Their favorite foods are grass , leaves , aquatic plants and herbs .
religious importance -Wild Water Buffalo Bubalus arnee in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve,. Nepal: status, population and conservation importance
found in regions- water buffalo is now found in most tropical and subtropical regions.
appearance – body color; gray-black coats.
optimal body temperature – body temperature independently of ambient temperature.
average sleep time – Wild water buffalo spend the rest of their time lying in shade, similar to cows in a field, although they likely sleep for only about an hour per day.
herbivores- The Ecology of Large Herbivores in South and Southeast Asia, Ecological Studies, 225, Springer Netherlands .
Wild water buffalo also known as Asian buffalo, Asiatic buffalo and wild Asian buffalo.
There is a 50% loss in population from the last three generation.
listed as Endangered species in the IUCN Red List since 1986.
The most important threats are:deforestation, interbreeding, habitats loss, fragmentation, hunting, transmitted disease and interbreeding competition for food.
9 Bengal tiger
scientific name: Panthera tigris tigris.
height: 90 – 110 cm , At Shoulder.
weight: 140 kg to 220 kg.
Diet: chital, sambar, gaur,barasingha, water buffalo, nilgai, serow ,wild boar, and occasionally hog deer, Indian muntjac and grey langur.
speed: 35 to 40 miles per hour.
lifespan: 15 years.
gestation period: 104 – 106 days.
sexual maturity: three years to five years of age.
population: fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011.
Habitat: high altitudes, tropical and subtropical rainforests, mangroves, and grasslands.
Found in regions : India, Burma, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Nepal.
religions important: the tiger has been one of the most prevailing figures in some Indian religions! The Bengal tiger is India’s national animal.
behavior: solitary animals,females raise their young and active at night.
appearance: orange fur with black stripes,white belly,body length of 6 feet,and tail length of 3 feet.
ancestors: oldest ancestors is the sabertooth tiger and Proailurus.
optimal body temperature: 311ºK or 37.5ºC or 99.5ºF.
average sleep time; about 18 to 20 hours.
endangered status: Tigers are globally listed as “Endangered” on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species .only around 3,800 tigers are thought to remain in the wild.
Poaching ,habitat loss, fragmentation,deforestation and illegal hunting are the main threats to Bengal tigers.
Population decline rapidly in India.
From the past 30 years, tigers population decrease from 3642 to 1400.
The Indian wildlife protection act 1972 take strict measures to conservation of the Bengal tigers.
The Wildlife Institute of India show that the population of tigers decreasing rapidly. In Maharashtra by 57%, Madhya Pradesh by 61%, and in Rajasthan by 40%.
interesting fact: A punch from a Tiger may kill you.
Tigers love to swim and play in the water like kid.
Tiger cubs are born blind.
8 Ganges Dolphin
scientific name – Platanista gangetica.
Length – 150 – 250 cm.
weight – upto 150kg.
Diet – large variety of fish, invertebrate animals, birds, and turtles.
lifespan – 28 years.
Gestation period :9 to 10 month.
sexual maturity: 10 years of age.
Habitat – Ganga & Brahmaputra rivers.
trophic level – carnivorous.
behavior – They are mainly found in small groups, and a mother and calf travel together.
ancestors – marine dolphins.
interesting fact – they’re particularly friendly to humans.
endangered status – Dolphin is one of the world’s most endangered freshwater mammals.
It is threatened primarily by the damming of rivers for irrigation and electricity generation, which degrades the habitat, and isolates the populations.
In India Ganges Dolphin mainly found in Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
National aquatic animal of India is River Dolphin.
Characteristics of Ganges river Dolphin are a Pointed nose, long and thin teeth, brownish body, and the female are larger than the male.
They have poor eyesight. That’s why they depend on echolocation to find prey.
They must surface every 30–120 seconds to breathe.
In 2017 Ganges river Dolphin population Is less than 3500.
Don’t treat animals as animalsTreat them as living beingsThat’s what they are”,
7 White-bellied musk deer
Also known as Himalayan musk deer .
scientific name: Moschus leucogaster.
height: The Deer measures about 86 to 100 centimeters from head to tail.
weight: 11 to 18 kg.
Diet: leaves of trees,shrubs, flowers, grasses, mosses, and lichens.
speed: 48km/h to 50 km/h.
lifespan:10 years to 14 years.
gestation period: 185 days to 195 days.
sexual maturity: At 16 to 24 months old.
population: 400,000 to 800,000 individual.
Habitat: lives in mountainous regions and forested environments.
Found in regions : Himalayas of Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and China.
trophic level; Herbivores
behavior: shy and nocturnal .
endangered status:listed as endangered by the IUCN because of overexploitation and poaching.
In Nepal their numbers are declining rapidly.It has disappeared in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Due to over-exploitation population decrease rapidly.
They prefer to lives on high altitude(2500 m).
Hunting is illegal in many countries.
In the China, hunting may be permitted in some areas, although a license is required.
For the conservation of this species, key priority is to take strict action against illegal hunting.
Male secretes a musk(waxy substance) to attract female and mark areas.
6 Servant mouse
Scientific name – Mus famulus
gestation period – about 19–21 days
sexual maturity – Females reach sexual maturity at about six weeks of age and males at about eight weeks.
Population – 2,500 million.
found in regions – The servant mouse (Mus famulus) or Bonhote’s mouse, is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
habitat – its natural habitat are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland.
These species are only found in India.
Habitat : Tropical and subtropical dry forest and grassland.
Typically observed in the area of high Altitude within the range of 1500 to 2500 meters.
Due to the loss of habitats and fragmentation population decline rapidly.
endangered status -It has been classified as by IUCN as Endangered in 2008 primarily because of the widespread destruction of habitat. facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild,
scientific name – Rucervus eldii.
Also known as brown antlered deer or the dancing deer.
Found only in Manipur, India.
State animal of Manipur.
Weight :95 to 110 kg.
Lifespan :10 years.
Gestation period :220 to 240 days.
height – approximately 115–125 cm at the shoulder.
sexual maturity – 18 months of age.
Habitat – marshy grasslands.
Found in regions – northeastern state of Manipur, India.
trophic level – Herbivores.
appearance – They have a reddish-brown to gray colored coat, dark brownish-black nose, lips, and mouth.
The population of sangai increased from 204 to 260 in 2013.
A major action was taken by the State Government for the protection of this rare and endangered species.
Sangai eats on a variety of water living plants, grasses, herbaceous plants, and shoots.
endangered status – Endangered.
4 Indian elephant
Scientific name – Elephas maximus indicus
length – 21 feet.
Weight : 2000 kg to 5000 kg.
lifespan; 50 to 70 years.
gestation period ; 22 months.
Population – 27,312 individual in india.
sexual maturity – elephant has been weaned (5 to 10 years of age) until about 17 years old. It is during this stage that the elephants reach sexual maturity.
Habitat – Indian elephants can be found in a wide range of habitats, including grasslands, forests (moist, tropical or dry), and also cultivated forests and scrublands.
found in regions – Indian elephant is native to mainland Asia: India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Laos, China, Cambodia, and Vietnam. It is regionally extinct in Pakistan.
habitat – grasslands, dry deciduous, moist deciduous, evergreen and semi-evergreen forests.
trophic level – they are herbivorous animals meaning that they only eat plants.
Ancestors – The tree shrew is considered our nearest common ancestor.
Average sleep time- Elephants in zoos sleep for four to six hours a day.
in the natural habitat, elephants rested for only two hours at night.
Optimal body temperature – The core body temperature averages 35.9 °C (96.6 °F), similar to that of a human.
endangered status – not extinct
In the year from, 1930 to 1940 population decline by 50%. And the elephant listed as endangered on the IUCN red list.
The major cause for population decline is habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation.
Due to the train accident, 39 elephants dead in the year from 1958 to 2008.
At birth, the elephant baby weighs about 104 kg.
They can live in grasslands and a wide variety of forests.
Elephants are herbivorous and graze for 19 hours on a variety of plants.
interesting fact –
There are around 150,000 muscles in the trunk, but no bones.
they produced about 220 lb (100 kg) of dung.
They can drink 53 gallons of water each day during the summer season.
The elephant is the national heritage animal of India.
3 Asiatic lion
Weight :110 to 190 kg.
Population : only several hundred.
Size: smaller than African lions.
They are found in Gir national park and surrounding areas.
The reason behind listed as endangered species is less population and area of occupancy.
Longitudinal fold of skin over the belly, present in Asiatic lions but absent in African lions.
Due to the efforts of the Central and State Governments, the population of Asiatic lions has been increased from 50 to 500.
height: 2.92m (115 inches)
Lifespan: 18 years
Lions mainly kill chital, sambar, nilgai, cattle, buffalo, and less frequently wild boar.
It is to be noted here that conservation of Asiatic lions has always been a priority of the Government of India.
2 Nicobar treeshrew
It is Endemic to the Nicobar islands only.
In the year 1868, Johann zelebor firstly described the Nicobar treeshrew.
They are mostly found above 640 meter from sea level.
Although already listed as an endangered species.
gestation period of approximately 50 days.
They eat a variety of insects, small vertebrates, fruits, and seeds.
Nicobar Tree Shrews have a slender build and a long tail.
hearing, smell, and visual senses are well developed.
Tree Shrews have the highest brain to body mass ratio , higher than humans.
1 Himalayan wolf
Scientific name – Canis himalayensis
gestation period – 170–218 days,
sexual maturity – They may attain sexual maturity by two years of age
Population – 350 individuals in India
Habitat – In China, the Himalayan wolf lives on the Tibetan Plateau in the provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Tibet, and western Sichuan.
found in regions – but now we know that they are found in the entire high altitude regions of Asia comprising the habitats of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau.
trophic level – carnivores
endangered status – critically endangered,
wolves can live in temperatures that range from minus 70 to 120 degrees.
Himalayan wolf has wooly fur, a yellowish-white face, blackish tail.
Weight :35-50 kg.
they have adapted to a low oxygen environment.
distribution range: the Himalayan range and the Tibetan Plateau.
the average lifespan is between 6 and 8 years.
in captivity can live up to 17 years.
height- 105 to 160 cm
It can run many distances up to 60 km per hour.
Diet: wolf are carnivores, and tend to prey on large ungulates: hoofed animals like elk, deer, and boar